Monday, 4 December 2017

Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) RAC On Oracle Linux 7 Using VirtualBox Part-1

This article describes the installation of Oracle Database 12c release 1 (12.1 64-bit) RAC on Linux (Oracle Linux 7 64-bit) using VirtualBox (5.0.4) with no additional shared disk devices.

◉ Introduction


One of the biggest obstacles preventing people from setting up test RAC environments is the requirement for shared storage. In a production environment, shared storage is often provided by a SAN or high-end NAS device, but both of these options are very expensive when all you want to do is get some experience installing and using RAC. A cheaper alternative is to use a FireWire disk enclosure to allow two machines to access the same disk(s), but that still costs money and requires two servers. A third option is to use virtualization to fake the shared storage.

Using VirtualBox you can run multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) on a single server, allowing you to run both RAC nodes on a single machine. In addition, it allows you to set up shared virtual disks, overcoming the obstacle of expensive shared storage.

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Before you launch into this installation, here are a few things to consider.

◉ The finished system includes the host operating system, two guest operating systems, two sets of Oracle Grid Infrastructure (Clusterware + ASM) and two Database instances all on a single server. As you can imagine, this requires a significant amount of disk space, CPU and memory.
◉ Following on from the last point, the VMs will each need at least 4G of RAM, preferably more if you don't want the VMs to swap like crazy. Don't assume you will be able to run this on a small PC or laptop. You won't.
◉ This procedure provides a bare bones installation to get the RAC working. There is no redundancy in the Grid Infrastructure installation or the ASM installation. To add this, simply create double the amount of shared disks and select the "Normal" redundancy option when it is offered. Of course, this will take more disk space.
◉ During the virtual disk creation, I always choose not to preallocate the disk space. This makes virtual disk access slower during the installation, but saves on wasted disk space. The shared disks must have their space preallocated.
◉ This is not, and should not be considered, a production-ready system. It's simply to allow you to get used to installing and using RAC.
◉ The Single Client Access Name (SCAN) should be defined in the DNS or GNS and round-robin between one of 3 addresses, which are on the same subnet as the public and virtual IPs. Prior to 11.2.0.2 it could be defined as a single IP address in the "/etc/hosts" file, which is wrong and will cause the cluster verification to fail, but it allowed you to complete the install without the presence of a DNS. This does not seem to work for 11.2.0.2 onward.
◉ The virtual machines can be limited to 2Gig of swap, which causes a prerequisite check failure, but doesn't prevent the installation working. If you want to avoid this, define 3+Gig of swap.
◉ This article uses the 64-bit versions of Oracle Linux and Oracle 12c Release 1.
◉ When doing this installation on my server, I split the virtual disks on to different physical disks ("/u02", "/u03", "/u04"). This is not necessary, but makes things run a bit faster.
I've used this procedure successfully on a Linux and Windows host. Where applicable, I've included both the Linux and Windows commands to be run on the host, so pick the relevant ones.

◉ Download Software


Download the following software.

Oracle Linux 7 (Use the latest spin eg. 7.1)
VirtualBox (5.0.4)
Oracle 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2) Software (64 bit)

Depending on your version of VirtualBox and Oracle Linux, there may be some slight variation in how the screen shots look.

◉ VirtualBox Installation


First, install the VirtualBox software. On RHEL and its clones you do this with the following type of command as the root user. On windows, just run the ".exe".

# rpm -Uvh VirtualBox-5.0-5.0.4_102546_el6-1.x86_64.rpm

The package name will vary depending on the host distribution you are using. Once complete, VirtualBox is started from the menu.

◉ VirtualBox Network Setup


We need to make sure a host-only network is configured and check/modify the IP range for that network. This will be the public network for our RAC installation.

◈ Start VirtualBox from the menu.

◈ Select the "File > Preferences" menu option.

◈ Click "Network" in the left pane and click the "Host-only Networks" tab.

◈ Click the "Adds new host-only network" button on the right size of the screen. Depending on the host OS, a network called "vboxnet0" or "VirtualBox Host-Only Ethernet Adapter" will be created.

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Click the "Edits selected host-only network." button on the right size of the screen.

◈ If you want to use a different subnet for your public addresses you can change the network details here. Just make sure the subnet you choose doesn't match any real subnets on your network. I've decided to stick with the default, which for me is "192.168.56.X".

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◈ Use the "OK" buttons to exit out of this screen and the previous one.

◉ Virtual Machine Setup


Now we must define the two virtual RAC nodes. We can save time by defining one VM, then cloning it when it is installed.

Start VirtualBox and click the "New" button on the toolbar. Enter the name "ol7-121-rac1", OS "Linux" and Version "Oracle (64 bit)", then click the "Next" button.

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Enter "4096" as the base memory size, then click the "Next" button. Use more memory if you have enough physical memory on your machine as it will make the process much quicker!

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Accept the default option to create a new virtual hard disk by clicking the "Create" button.

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Acccept the default hard drive file type by clicking the "Next" button.

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Acccept the "Dynamically allocated" option by clicking the "Next" button.

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Accept the default location and set the size to "50G", then click the "Create" button. If you can spread the virtual disks onto different physical disks, that will improve performance.

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The "ol7-121-rac1" VM will appear on the left hand pane. Scroll down the details on the right and click on the "Network" link.

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Make sure "Adapter 1" is enabled, set to "NAT", then click on the "Adapter 2" tab.

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Make sure "Adapter 2" is enabled, set to "Host-only Adapter", then click on the "Adapter 3" tab.

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Make sure "Adapter 3" is enabled, set to "Internal Network", then click on the "System" section.

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Move "Hard Disk" to the top of the boot order and uncheck the "Floppy" option, then click the "OK" button.

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The virtual machine is now configured so we can start the guest operating system installation.

◉ Guest Operating System Installation


With the new VM highlighted, click the "Start" button on the toolbar. On the "Select start-up disk" screen, choose the relevant Oracle Linux ISO image and click the "Start" button.

Virtual Machines, Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Linux 7, VirtualBox, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials

If a "Select start-up disk" screen doesn't appear, use the "Devices > Optical Drives > Choose disk image..." menu option to select the relevant ISO image, then restart the VM using the "Machine > Reset" menu option.

The resulting console window will contain the Oracle Linux boot screen.

Virtual Machines, Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Linux 7, VirtualBox, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials

Continue through the Oracle Linux 7 installation as you would for a basic server. A general pictorial guide to the installation can be found here. More specifically, it should be a server installation with a minimum of 4G+ swap, firewall disabled, SELinux set to permissive and the following package groups installed:

◈ Server with GUI
◈ Hardware Monitoring Utilities
◈ Large Systems Performance
◈ Network file system client
◈ Performance Tools
◈ Compatibility Libraries
◈ Development Tools

To be consistent with the rest of the article, the following information should be set during the installation.

◈ hostname: ol7-121-rac1.localdomain
◈ enp0s3 (eth0): DHCP (Connect Automatically)
◈ enp0s8 (eth1): IP=192.168.56.101, Subnet=255.255.255.0, Gateway=192.168.56.1, DNS=192.168.56.1, Search=localdomain (Connect Automatically)
◈ enp0s9 (eth2): IP=192.168.1.101, Subnet=255.255.255.0, Gateway=<blank>, DNS=<blank>, 
Search=<blank> (Connect Automatically)

You are free to change the IP addresses to suit your network, but remember to stay consistent with those adjustments throughout the rest of the article. Likewise, this article I will refer to the network adapters as enp0s3, enp0s8 and enp0s9, In previous Linux versinos they would have been eth0, eth1 and eth2 respectively.

◉ Oracle Installation Prerequisites


Perform either the Automatic Setup or the Manual Setup to complete the basic prerequisites. The Additional Setup is required for all installations.

     ◉ Automatic Setup

If you plan to use the "oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall" package to perform all your prerequisite setup, issue the following command.

# yum install oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall -y
# yum install ntp -y

It is probably worth doing a full update as well, but this is not strictly speaking necessary.

# yum update -y

     ◉ Manual Setup

If you have not used the "oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall" package to perform all prerequisites, you will need to manually perform the following setup tasks.

Add the following lines to the "/etc/sysctl.conf" file, or in a file called "/etc/sysctl.d/98-oracle.conf".

fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmall = 1073741824
kernel.shmmax = 4398046511104
kernel.panic_on_oops = 1
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 2
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500

Run the following command to change the current kernel parameters.

/sbin/sysctl -p

Add the following lines to a file called "/etc/security/limits.d/oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall.conf" file.

oracle   soft   nofile    1024
oracle   hard   nofile    65536
oracle   soft   nproc    16384
oracle   hard   nproc    16384
oracle   soft   stack    10240
oracle   hard   stack    32768
oracle   hard   memlock    134217728
oracle   soft   memlock    134217728

In addition to the basic OS installation, the following packages must be installed whilst logged in as the root user. This includes the 64-bit and 32-bit versions of some packages.

# From Public Yum or ULN
yum install binutils -y
yum install compat-libstdc++-33 -y
yum install compat-libstdc++-33.i686 -y
yum install gcc -y
yum install gcc-c++ -y
yum install glibc -y
yum install glibc.i686 -y
yum install glibc-devel -y
yum install glibc-devel.i686 -y
yum install ksh -y
yum install libgcc -y
yum install libgcc.i686 -y
yum install libstdc++ -y
yum install libstdc++.i686 -y
yum install libstdc++-devel -y
yum install libstdc++-devel.i686 -y
yum install libaio -y
yum install libaio.i686 -y
yum install libaio-devel -y
yum install libaio-devel.i686 -y
yum install libXext -y
yum install libXext.i686 -y
yum install libXtst -y
yum install libXtst.i686 -y
yum install libX11 -y
yum install libX11.i686 -y
yum install libXau -y
yum install libXau.i686 -y
yum install libxcb -y
yum install libxcb.i686 -y
yum install libXi -y
yum install libXi.i686 -y
yum install make -y
yum install sysstat -y
yum install unixODBC -y
yum install unixODBC-devel -y
yum install zlib-devel -y
yum install zlib-devel.i686 -y

Create the new groups and users.

groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
groupadd -g 54322 dba
groupadd -g 54323 oper
#groupadd -g 54324 backupdba
#groupadd -g 54325 dgdba
#groupadd -g 54326 kmdba
#groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
#groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
#groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin

useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracle

Uncomment the extra groups you require.

     ◉ Additional Setup

The following steps must be performed, whether you did the manual or automatic setup.

Perform the following steps whilst logged into the "ol7-121-rac1" virtual machine as the root user.

Set the password for the "oracle" user.

passwd oracle

Apart form the localhost address, the "/etc/hosts" file can be left blank, but I prefer to put the addresses in for reference.

127.0.0.1       localhost.localdomain   localhost
# Public
192.168.56.101   ol7-121-rac1.localdomain        ol7-121-rac1
192.168.56.102   ol7-121-rac2.localdomain        ol7-121-rac2
# Private
192.168.1.101   ol7-121-rac1-priv.localdomain   ol7-121-rac1-priv
192.168.1.102   ol7-121-rac2-priv.localdomain   ol7-121-rac2-priv
# Virtual
192.168.56.103   ol7-121-rac1-vip.localdomain    ol7-121-rac1-vip
192.168.56.104   ol7-121-rac2-vip.localdomain    ol7-121-rac2-vip
# SCAN
#192.168.56.105   ol7-121-scan.localdomain ol7-121-scan
#192.168.56.106   ol7-121-scan.localdomain ol7-121-scan
#192.168.56.107   ol7-121-scan.localdomain ol7-121-scan

Make sure the "/etc/resolv.conf" file includes a nameserver entry that points to the correct nameserver. Also, if the "domain" and "search" entries are both present, comment out one of them. For this installation my "/etc/resolv.conf" looked like this.

#domain localdomain
search localdomain
nameserver 192.168.56.1

The changes to the "resolv.conf" will be overwritten by the network manager, due to the presence of the NAT interface. For this reason, this interface should now be disabled on startup. You can enable it manually if you need to access the internet from the VMs. Edit the "/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s3" (eth0) file, making the following change. This will take effect after the next restart.

ONBOOT=no

There is no need to do the restart now. You can just run the following command. Remember to amend the adapter name if yours are named differently.

# ifdown enp0s3
# #ifdown eth0

At this point, the networking for the first node should look something like the following. Notice that enp0s3 (eth0) has no associated IP address because it is disabled.

# ifconfig -a
enp0s3: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 08:00:27:eb:72:86  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 10  bytes 1716 (1.6 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 55  bytes 8308 (8.1 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

enp0s8: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.56.101  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.56.255
        inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fe84:31f5  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 08:00:27:84:31:f5  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 342  bytes 33597 (32.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 302  bytes 43228 (42.2 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

enp0s9: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.101  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fe0d:9dd9  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 08:00:27:0d:9d:d9  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 28  bytes 3941 (3.8 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
        loop  txqueuelen 0  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 16  bytes 1708 (1.6 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 16  bytes 1708 (1.6 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

#

With this in place and the DNS configured the SCAN address is being resolved to all three IP addresses.

# nslookup ol7-121-scan
Server: 192.168.56.1
Address: 192.168.56.1#53

Name: ol7-121-scan.localdomain
Address: 192.168.56.105
Name: ol7-121-scan.localdomain
Address: 192.168.56.106
Name: ol7-121-scan.localdomain
Address: 192.168.56.107

#

Change the setting of SELinux to permissive by editing the "/etc/selinux/config" file, making sure the SELINUX flag is set as follows.

SELINUX=permissive

If you have the Linux firewall enabled, you will need to disable or configure it, as shown here or here. The following is an example of disabling the firewall.

# systemctl stop firewalld
# systemctl disable firewalld

Either configure NTP, or make sure it is not configured so the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service (ctssd) can synchronize the times of the RAC nodes. If you want to deconfigure NTP do the following, which is what I did for this installation.

# systemctl stop ntpd
Shutting down ntpd:                                        [  OK  ]
# systemctl disable ntpd
# mv /etc/ntp.conf /etc/ntp.conf.orig
# rm /var/run/ntpd.pid

If your RAC is going to be permanently connected to your main network and you want to use NTP, you must add the "-x" option into the following line in the "/etc/sysconfig/ntpd" file.

OPTIONS="-x -u ntp:ntp -p /var/run/ntpd.pid"
Then restart NTP.

# systemctl enable ntpd
# systemctl restart ntpd

Create the directories in which the Oracle software will be installed.

mkdir -p  /u01/app/12.1.0.2/grid
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01
chmod -R 775 /u01/

Log in as the "oracle" user and add the following lines at the end of the "/home/oracle/.bash_profile" file.

# Oracle Settings
export TMP=/tmp
export TMPDIR=$TMP

export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=ol7-121-rac1.localdomain
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=CDBRAC
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export GRID_HOME=/u01/app/12.1.0.2/grid
export DB_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.1.0.2/db_1
export ORACLE_HOME=$DB_HOME
export ORACLE_SID=cdbrac1
export ORACLE_TERM=xterm
export BASE_PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$BASE_PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib

alias grid_env='. /home/oracle/grid_env'
alias db_env='. /home/oracle/db_env'

Create a file called "/home/oracle/grid_env" with the following contents.

export ORACLE_SID=+ASM1
export ORACLE_HOME=$GRID_HOME
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$BASE_PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib

Create a file called "/home/oracle/db_env" with the following contents.

export ORACLE_SID=cdbrac1
export ORACLE_HOME=$DB_HOME
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$BASE_PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib

Once the "/home/oracle/.bash_profile" has been run, you will be able to switch between environments as follows.

$ grid_env
$ echo $ORACLE_HOME
/u01/app/12.1.0.2/grid
$ db_env
$ echo $ORACLE_HOME
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1
$

We've made a lot of changes, so it's worth doing a reboot of the VM at this point to make sure all the changes have taken effect.

# shutdown -r now

◉ Install Guest Additions

Click on the "Devices > Install Guest Additions" menu option at the top of the VM screen. If you get the option to auto-run take it. If not, then run the following commands.

cd /media/VBOXADDITIONS_4.3.16_95972
sh ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

Add the "oracle" user into the "vboxsf" group so it has access to shared drives.

# usermod -G vboxsf,dba oracle
# id oracle
uid=54321(oracle) gid=54321(oinstall) groups=54321(oinstall),54322(dba),54323(vboxsf)
#

Unzip the grid and database software on the host machine.

unzip linuxamd64_12102_grid_1of2.zip
unzip linuxamd64_12102_grid_2of2.zip
unzip linuxamd64_12102_database_1of2.zip
unzip linuxamd64_12102_database_2of2.zip

Create a shared folder (Devices > Shared Folders) on the virtual machine, pointing to the directory on the host where the Oracle software was unzipped. Check the "Auto-mount" and "Make Permanent" options before clicking the "OK" button.

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The VM will need to be restarted for the guest additions to be used properly. The next section requires a shutdown so no additional restart is needed at this time. Once the VM is restarted, the shared folder called "/media/sf_12.1.0.2" will be accessible by the "oracle" user.

◉ Create Shared Disks


Shut down the "ol7-121-rac1" virtual machine using the following command.

# shutdown -h now

On the host server, create 4 sharable virtual disks and associate them as virtual media using the following commands. You can pick a different location, but make sure they are outside the existing VM directory.

$ mkdir -p /u04/VirtualBox/ol7-121-rac
$ cd /u04/VirtualBox/ol7-121-rac
$
$ # Create the disks and associate them with VirtualBox as virtual media.
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm1.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm2.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm3.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$ VBoxManage createhd --filename asm4.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
$
$ # Connect them to the VM.
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 1 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm1.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 2 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm2.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 3 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm3.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 4 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm4.vdi --mtype shareable
$
$ # Make shareable.
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm1.vdi --type shareable
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm2.vdi --type shareable
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm3.vdi --type shareable
$ VBoxManage modifyhd asm4.vdi --type shareable

If you are using a Windows host, you will have to modify the paths, but the process is the same.

C:
mkdir C:\VirtualBox\ol7-121-rac
cd C:\VirtualBox\ol7-121-rac

"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" createhd --filename asm1.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" createhd --filename asm2.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" createhd --filename asm3.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" createhd --filename asm4.vdi --size 5120 --format VDI --variant Fixed

"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 1 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm1.vdi --mtype shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 2 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm2.vdi --mtype shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 3 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm3.vdi --mtype shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac1 --storagectl "SATA" --port 4 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm4.vdi --mtype shareable

"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" modifyhd asm1.vdi --type shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" modifyhd asm2.vdi --type shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" modifyhd asm3.vdi --type shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" modifyhd asm4.vdi --type shareable

Start the "ol7-121-rac1" virtual machine by clicking the "Start" button on the toolbar. When the server has started, log in as the root user so you can configure the shared disks. The current disks can be seen by issuing the following commands.

# cd /dev
# ls sd*
sda  sda1  sda2  sdb  sdc  sdd  sde
#

Use the "fdisk" command to partition the disks sdb to sde. The following output shows the expected fdisk output for the sdb disk.

# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x62be91cf.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-652, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-652, default 652):
Using default value 652

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
#

In each case, the sequence of answers is "n", "p", "1", "Return", "Return" and "w".

Once all the disks are partitioned, the results can be seen by repeating the previous "ls" command.

# cd /dev
# ls sd*
sda  sda1  sda2  sdb  sdb1  sdc  sdc1  sdd  sdd1  sde  sde1
#

Configure your UDEV rules.

Add the following to the "/etc/scsi_id.config" file to configure SCSI devices as trusted. Create the file if it doesn't already exist.

options=-g

The SCSI ID of my disks are displayed below.

# /usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/sdb
1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB40696d3c-4b65a1e9
# /usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/sdc
1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB131c87f1-9a5b7135
# /usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/sdd
1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3d0db51a-8fe749fa
# /usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/sde
1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB93d904b0-66a29d8f
#

Using these values, edit the "/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules" file adding the following 4 entries. All parameters for a single entry must be on the same line.

KERNEL=="sd?1", SUBSYSTEM=="block", PROGRAM=="/usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/$parent", RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB40696d3c-4b65a1e9", SYMLINK+="oracleasm/asm-disk1", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?1", SUBSYSTEM=="block", PROGRAM=="/usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/$parent", RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB131c87f1-9a5b7135", SYMLINK+="oracleasm/asm-disk2", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?1", SUBSYSTEM=="block", PROGRAM=="/usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/$parent", RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB3d0db51a-8fe749fa", SYMLINK+="oracleasm/asm-disk3", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?1", SUBSYSTEM=="block", PROGRAM=="/usr/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/$parent", RESULT=="1ATA_VBOX_HARDDISK_VB93d904b0-66a29d8f", SYMLINK+="oracleasm/asm-disk4", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"

Load updated block device partition tables.

# /sbin/partprobe /dev/sdb1
# /sbin/partprobe /dev/sdc1
# /sbin/partprobe /dev/sdd1
# /sbin/partprobe /dev/sde1

Test the rules are working as expected.

# /sbin/udevadm test /block/sdb/sdb1

Reload the UDEV rules.

# /sbin/udevadm control --reload-rules

The disks should now be visible and have the correct ownership using the following command. If they are not visible, your UDEV configuration is incorrect and must be fixed before you proceed.

# ls -al /dev/oracleasm/*

lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 17 16:10 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk1 -> ../sdb1
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 17 16:10 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk2 -> ../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 17 16:10 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk3 -> ../sdd1
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 17 16:10 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk4 -> ../sde1
#
The shared disks are now configured for the grid infrastructure.

◉ Clone the Virtual Machine


Later versions of VirtualBox allow you to clone VMs, but these also attempt to clone the shared disks, which is not what we want. Instead we must manually clone the VM.

Shut down the "ol7-121-rac1" virtual machine using the following command.

# shutdown -h now

Manually clone the "ol7-121-rac1.vdi" disk using the following commands on the host server.

$ # Linux
$ mkdir -p /u03/VirtualBox/ol7-121-rac2
$ VBoxManage clonehd /u01/VirtualBox/ol7-121-rac1/ol7-121-rac1.vdi /u03/VirtualBox/ol7-121-rac2/ol7-121-rac2.vdi

Rem Windows
mkdir "C:\VirtualBox\ol7-121-rac2"
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" clonehd "C:\VirtualBox\ol7-121-rac1\ol7-121-rac1.vdi" "C:\VirtualBox\ol7-121-rac2\ol7-121-rac2.vdi"

Create the "ol7-121-rac2" virtual machine in VirtualBox in the same way as you did for "ol7-121-rac1", with the exception of using an existing "ol7-121-rac2.vdi" virtual hard drive.

Virtual Machines, Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Linux 7, VirtualBox, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials

Remember to add the three network adaptor as you did on the "ol7-121-rac1" VM. When the VM is created, attach the shared disks to this VM.

$ # Linux : Switch to the shared storage location and attach them.
$ cd /u04/VirtualBox/ol7-121-rac
$
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 1 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm1.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 2 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm2.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 3 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm3.vdi --mtype shareable
$ VBoxManage storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 4 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm4.vdi --mtype shareable


Rem Windows : Switch to the shared storage location and attach them.
C:
cd C:\VirtualBox\ol7-121-rac

"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 1 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm1.vdi --mtype shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 2 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm2.vdi --mtype shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 3 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm3.vdi --mtype shareable
"c:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage" storageattach ol7-121-rac2 --storagectl "SATA" --port 4 --device 0 --type hdd --medium asm4.vdi --mtype shareable

Start the "ol7-121-rac2" virtual machine by clicking the "Start" button on the toolbar. Ignore any network errors during the startup.

Log in to the "ol7-121-rac2" virtual machine as the "root" user so we can reconfigure the network settings to match the following.

◈ hostname: ol7-121-rac2.localdomain
◈ enp0s3 (eth0): DHCP (*Not* Connect Automatically)
◈ enp0s8 (eth1): IP=192.168.56.102, Subnet=255.255.255.0, Gateway=192.168.56.1, DNS=192.168.56.1, Search=localdomain (Connect Automatically)
◈ enp0s9 (eth2): IP=192.168.1.102, Subnet=255.255.255.0, Gateway=<blank>, DNS=<blank>, Search=<blank> (Connect Automatically)

Amend the hostname in the "/etc/hostname" file.

ol7-121-rac2.localdomain

Unlike previous Linux versions, we shouldn't have to edit the MAC address associated with the network adapters, but we will have to alter their IP addresses.

Edit the "/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1" (enp0s8), amending only the IPADDR settings as follows and deleting the UUID entry.

IPADDR=192.168.56.102

Edit the "/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth2" (enp0s9), amending only the IPADDR settings as follows and deleting the UUID entry.

IPADDR=192.168.1.102

Restart the virtual machines.

# shutdown -r now

At this point, the networking for the second node should look something like the following. Notice that enp0s3 (eth0) has no associated IP address because it is disabled.

# ifconfig
enp0s3 : flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 08:00:27:dc:7c:74  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

enp0s8: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.56.102  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.56.255
        inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fed9:c89a  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 08:00:27:d9:c8:9a  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 197  bytes 19460 (19.0 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 178  bytes 27171 (26.5 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

enp0s9: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.102  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:feb4:6bf  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 08:00:27:b4:06:bf  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 30  bytes 4112 (4.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
        loop  txqueuelen 0  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 4  bytes 420 (420.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 4  bytes 420 (420.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

#

Edit the "/home/oracle/.bash_profile" file on the "ol7-121-rac2" node to correct the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOSTNAME values.

export ORACLE_SID=cdbrac2
export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=ol7-121-rac2.localdomain

Also, amend the ORACLE_SID setting in the "/home/oracle/db_env" and "/home/oracle/grid_env" files.

Restart the "ol7-121-rac2" virtual machine and start the "ol7-121-rac1" virtual machine. When both nodes have started, check they can both ping all the public and private IP addresses using the following commands.

ping -c 3 ol7-121-rac1
ping -c 3 ol7-121-rac1-priv
ping -c 3 ol7-121-rac2
ping -c 3 ol7-121-rac2-priv

Check the SCAN address is still being resolved properly on both nodes.

# nslookup ol7-121-scan
Server: 192.168.56.1
Address: 192.168.56.1#53

Name: ol7-121-scan.localdomain
Address: 192.168.56.105
Name: ol7-121-scan.localdomain
Address: 192.168.56.106
Name: ol7-121-scan.localdomain
Address: 192.168.56.107

#

At this point the virtual IP addresses defined in the "/etc/hosts" file will not work, so don't bother testing them.

Check the UDEV rules are working on both machines. In previous versions of OL7 the "/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules" file copied between servers during the clone without any issues. For some reason, this doesn't seem to happen on my OL7.1 installations, so you may need to repeat the UDEV configuration on the second node if the output of the following command is not consistent on both nodes.

# ls -al /dev/oracleasm/*
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 18 08:19 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk1 -> ../sdb1
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 18 08:19 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk2 -> ../sdc1
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 18 08:19 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk3 -> ../sdd1
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Sep 18 08:19 /dev/oracleasm/asm-disk4 -> ../sde1
#

Prior to 11gR2 we would probably use the "runcluvfy.sh" utility in the clusterware root directory to check the prerequisites have been met. If you are intending to configure SSH connectivity using the installer this check should be omitted as it will always fail. If you want to setup SSH connectivity manually, then once it is done you can run the "runcluvfy.sh" with the following command.

/mountpoint/clusterware/runcluvfy.sh stage -pre crsinst -n ol7-121-rac1,ol7-121-rac2 -verbose
If you get any failures be sure to correct them before proceeding.

The virtual machine setup is now complete.

Before moving forward you should probably shut down your VMs and take snapshots of them. If any failures happen beyond this point it is probably better to switch back to those snapshots, clean up the shared drives and start the grid installation again. An alternative to cleaning up the shared disks is to back them up now using zip and just replace them in the event of a failure.

$ # Linux
$ cd /u04/VirtualBox/ol7-121-rac
$ zip PreGrid.zip *.vdi

Rem Windows
C:
cd C:\VirtualBox\ol7-121-rac
zip PreGrid.zip *.vdi