Friday, 18 August 2017

Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) Installation On Oracle Linux 6 (OL6) and 7 (OL7)

This article describes the installation of Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) 64-bit on Oracle Linux 6 (OL6) and 7 (OL7) 64-bit. The article is based on a server installation with a minimum of 2G swap and secure Linux set to permissive.

  • Download Software

Download the Oracle software from OTN or MOS depending on your support status.

  • Unpack Files

Unzip the file.

unzip linuxx64_12201_database.zip

You should now have a single directory called "database" containing installation files.

  • Hosts File

The "/etc/hosts" file must contain a fully qualified name for the server.

<IP-address>  <fully-qualified-machine-name>  <machine-name>

For example.

127.0.0.1       localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
192.168.56.107  ol7-122.localdomain  ol7-122

Set the correct hostname in the "/etc/hostname" file.

ol7-122.localdomain

  • Oracle Installation Prerequisites

Perform either the Automatic Setup or the Manual Setup to complete the basic prerequisites. The Additional Setup is required for all installations.
    • Automatic Setup
If you plan to use the "oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall" package to perform all your prerequisite setup, issue the following command.

# yum install oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall -y

It is probably worth doing a full update as well, but this is not strictly speaking necessary.

# yum update -y

It's worth running the all the YUM commands listed in the manual setup section. Depending on the OS package groups you have selected, some additional packages might also be needed.
    • Manual Setup
If you have not used the "oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall" package to perform all prerequisites, you will need to manually perform the following setup tasks.

Add the following lines to the "/etc/sysctl.conf" file, or in a file called "/etc/sysctl.d/98-oracle.conf".

fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmall = 1073741824
kernel.shmmax = 4398046511104
kernel.panic_on_oops = 1
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 2
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500

Run the following command to change the current kernel parameters.

/sbin/sysctl -p

Add the following lines to a file called "/etc/security/limits.d/oracle-database-server-12cR2-preinstall.conf" file.

oracle   soft   nofile    1024
oracle   hard   nofile    65536
oracle   soft   nproc    16384
oracle   hard   nproc    16384
oracle   soft   stack    10240
oracle   hard   stack    32768
oracle   hard   memlock    134217728
oracle   soft   memlock    134217728

 Someone in the comments suggested you might need to add the previous lines into the "/etc/security/limits.conf" file also for CentOS7. This is definitely not needed for OL7, but worth considering if the installer gives prerequisite failures for these settings.

The following packages are listed as required, including the 32-bit version of some of the packages. Many of the packages should be installed already.

# OL6 and OL7 (RHEL6 and RHEL7)
yum install binutils -y
yum install compat-libcap1 -y
yum install compat-libstdc++-33 -y
yum install compat-libstdc++-33.i686 -y
yum install glibc -y
yum install glibc.i686 -y
yum install glibc-devel -y
yum install glibc-devel.i686 -y
yum install ksh -y
yum install libaio -y
yum install libaio.i686 -y
yum install libaio-devel -y
yum install libaio-devel.i686 -y
yum install libX11 -y
yum install libX11.i686 -y
yum install libXau -y
yum install libXau.i686 -y
yum install libXi -y
yum install libXi.i686 -y
yum install libXtst -y
yum install libXtst.i686 -y
yum install libgcc -y
yum install libgcc.i686 -y
yum install libstdc++ -y
yum install libstdc++.i686 -y
yum install libstdc++-devel -y
yum install libstdc++-devel.i686 -y
yum install libxcb -y
yum install libxcb.i686 -y
yum install make -y
yum install nfs-utils -y
yum install net-tools -y
yum install smartmontools -y
yum install sysstat -y
yum install unixODBC -y
yum install unixODBC-devel -y

# Required for 12.1, not listed for 12.2
yum install gcc -y
yum install gcc-c++ -y
yum install libXext -y
yum install libXext.i686 -y
yum install zlib-devel -y
yum install zlib-devel.i686 -y

# OL6 only (RHEL6 only)
yum install e2fsprogs -y
yum install e2fsprogs-libs -y
yum install libs -y
yum install libxcb.i686 -y
yum install libxcb -y

Create the new groups and users.

groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
groupadd -g 54322 dba
groupadd -g 54323 oper
#groupadd -g 54324 backupdba
#groupadd -g 54325 dgdba
#groupadd -g 54326 kmdba
#groupadd -g 54327 asmdba
#groupadd -g 54328 asmoper
#groupadd -g 54329 asmadmin
#groupadd -g 54330 racdba

useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracle
Uncomment the extra groups you require.
    • Additional Setup
The following steps must be performed, whether you did the manual or automatic setup.

Set the password for the "oracle" user.

Set secure Linux to permissive by editing the "/etc/selinux/config" file, making sure the SELINUX flag is set as follows.

SELINUX=permissive

Once the change is complete, restart the server or run the following command.

# setenforce Permissive

If you have the Linux firewall enabled, you will need to disable or configure it, as shown here or here. To disable it, do the following.

# systemctl stop firewalld
# systemctl disable firewalld

If you are not using Oracle Linux and UEK, you will need to manually disable transparent huge pages.

Create the directories in which the Oracle software will be installed.

mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0.1/db_1
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01
chmod -R 775 /u01

Putting mount points directly under root is typically a bad idea. It's done here for simplicity, but for a real installation "/" should be reserved for the OS.

Unless you are working from the console, or using SSH tunnelling, login as root and issue the following command.

xhost +<machine-name>

The scripts are created using the cat command, with all the "$" characters escaped. If you want to manually create these files, rather than using the cat command, remember to remove the "\" characters before the "$" characters.

Create a "scripts" directory.

mkdir /home/oracle/scripts

Create an environment file called "setEnv.sh".

cat > /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh <<EOF
# Oracle Settings
export TMP=/tmp
export TMPDIR=\$TMP

export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=ol7-122.localdomain
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=cdb1
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=\$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.2.0.1/db_1
export ORACLE_SID=cdb1

export PATH=/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:\$PATH
export PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/bin:\$PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=\$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:\$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
EOF

Add a reference to the "setEnv.sh" file at the end of the "/home/oracle/.bash_profile" file.

echo ". /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh" >> /home/oracle/.bash_profile

Create a "start_all.sh" and "stop_all.sh" script that can be called from a startup/shutdown service. Make sure the ownership and permissions are correct.

cat > /home/oracle/scripts/start_all.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash
. /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh

export ORAENV_ASK=NO
. oraenv
export ORAENV_ASK=YES

dbstart \$ORACLE_HOME
EOF

cat > /home/oracle/scripts/stop_all.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash
. /home/oracle/scripts/setEnv.sh

export ORAENV_ASK=NO
. oraenv
export ORAENV_ASK=YES

dbshut \$ORACLE_HOME
EOF

chown -R oracle.oinstall /home/oracle/scripts
chmod u+x /home/oracle/scripts/*.sh

Once the installation is complete and you've edited the "/etc/oratab", you should be able to start/stop the database with the following scripts run from the "oracle" user.

~/scripts/start_all.sh
~/scripts/stop_all.sh

You can see how to create a Linux service to automatically start/stop the database here (OL6, OL7).

  • Installation

Log into the oracle user. If you are using X emulation then set the DISPLAY environmental variable.

DISPLAY=<machine-name>:0.0; export DISPLAY

Start the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) by issuing the following command in the database directory.

./runInstaller

Proceed with the installation of your choice.

You can see the type of installation I performed by clicking on the links below to see screen shots of each stage.

1. Configure Security Updates

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

02. Select Install Option

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

03. Select System Class

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

04. Select Database Installation Option

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

05. Select Install Type

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

06. Typical Install Configuration

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

07. Create Inventory

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

08. Perform Prerequisite Checks

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

09. Summary

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

10. Install Product

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

11. Execute Configuration Scripts

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

12. Database Configuration Assistant

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

13. Finish

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

14. Database Express 12c Login

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

15. Database Express 12c Dashboard

Oracle Database12c, 12c, Linux OL6-OL7, Oracle Database Tutorials and Materials, Oracle Database Guides

The "Database Configuration Assistant Complete" screen displays the Database Express 12c URL, which will be something like "https://ol7-122.localdomain:5500/em".

  • Post Installation

Edit the "/etc/oratab" file setting the restart flag for each instance to 'Y'.

cdb1:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0.1/db_1:Y